The defense of Corregidor was the immediate responsibility of the Philippine Coast Artillery Command under Major General George F. Moore. To carry out this important mission, 23 batteries were set up on Corregidor and the adjoining islands at the outbreak of World War II in 1941. These consisted of 56 coastal guns and mortars which formed the main power of the island fortress. Corregidor had 13 anti-aircraft artillery batteries with 76 guns, twenty-eight of which were 3-inch and forty-eight 50-caliber. With all the gun emplacements set up in the island, Batteries Geary and Way proved to be the best and most effective for the defense of Corregidor during the siege by the Japanese forces. The following six most accessible batteries in Corregidor were visited and photographed for portrayal in this website:
Battery Way - Work on setting up of Battery Way started in 1904 and it was completed in 1914 at a cost of $112,969. It was named in honor of 2nd Lieutenant Henry N. Way of the 4th U.S. Artillery who died in service in the Philippines in 1900. Armed with four 12-inch mortars, it was capable of lobbing a 1000-lb deck piercing shell or 700 lb high explosive shell 14,610 yards in any direction. This gun emplacement was equipped with anti-personnel firepower. It was designed to penetrate the thin deck armor of warships and against any enemy entrenched on higher grounds in Bataan. Its firing elevation was from 45 degrees minimum to 70 degrees maximum. The length of its rifled bore is 10 ft. To fire each mortar, a standard crew consisting of 14 men were needed. Three of the serviceable mortars opened fire on April 28, 1942 and on May 2, 1942. After the 12 hours of continuous firing, the remaining mortar finally frose tight on May 6, 1942. It was the last of Corregidor's "concrete artillery" to cease firing before the surrender of Bataan.
Battery Hearn - The Americans started setting up Battery Hearn in 1918 and completed work on it in 1921 at a cost of $148,105. This 12-inch seacost west-ranged guns had a maximum range of 29,000 yards and was capable of firing in all directions. It was one of the last major additions to Corregidor's defense system which was intended to defend the island against enemy naval threat from the South China Sea. Battery Hearn had been in action firing towards Cavite from February 1942 and on April 8 and 9, 1942, towards Bataan. This gun emplacement was captured nearly intact by the Japanese when Corregidor fell and it was subsequently repaired by them and put back into action. It was, however, completely neutralized by American aerial bombardment in January and February of 1945.
Battery Geary - The setting up of Battery Geary started in 1907 and was completed in 1911 at a cost of $145,198. It was named in honor of Capt. Woodbridge Geary of the 13th U.S. Infantry who died in 1899 in the Philippines. With a maximum range of 14,610 yards, it was capable of firing in any direction. The eight 12-inch mortars of this battery were considered the most effective anti-personnel weapon in Corregidor. The battery had two mortar pits with 3 magazines and its standard crew consisted of 4 men per mortar. The vertical plunging trajectories of these mortars made them ideal for use against enemy entrenched on higher grounds in Bataan.
Battery Grubbs - Work on this $212,397 battery started from November 1907 and it saw completion early in 1909. It was named in honor of 1st Lieutenant Hayden Y. Grubbs who belonged to the 6th U.S. Infantry and who died during the insurrection in the islands in 1899. Battery Grubbs was armed with two 10-inch guns mounted on disappearing carriages and located well inland in the west central part of Corregidor. This gun emplacement was intended to fire to the northwest. At the start of the Second World War the battery was not originally manned. It was put into active service in early April 1942 but was quickly knocked out of service and subsequently abandoned.
Battery Crockett - This gun emplacement was initially constructed in 1905 and was completed in 1908 at a cost of $290,049. It was one of the six "disappearing" gun batteries that formed the interlocking field of fire which totally encircled the island. The battery was armed with two 12-inch seacost guns mounted on disappearing carriages behind a concrete parapet. Its range was 17,000 yards and was capable of 170-degree traverse with overlapping fields or a total of 220 degrees coverage for the battery. The design of this battery was very similar to Battery Cheney and Battery Wheeler. It was located centrally on the island and firing basically south across the major southern channel into Manila Bay.
Some of the other batteries that were set up in Corregidor included: Wheeler, Ramsay, Morrison, James, Smith, Cheney, Monja, Kysor, Hamilton, Cushing, Sunset, Hanna, Keyes, Rockpoint, Wright, and Rose.